Copyright & Permissions


Authors submitting a manuscript to one of our journals do so on the understanding that if it is accepted for publication, copyright in the paper exclusive shall be assigned to the Publisher.

In consideration of the assignment of copyright an Author Copy PDF of each paper and a copy of the Journal will be supplied. Further copies of the journal may be ordered at extra cost. The Publisher will not put any limitations on the personal freedom of the author to use material contained in the paper in other works. For full details on author rights we advise you to view our Self-Archiving Policy. Papers are accepted for the Journal on the understanding that they have not been or will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language.

We request that copyright is assigned to us to enable us to disseminate your article in the widest possible way and to help protect the integrity of your work.  We require that all authors sign our copyright assignment. Copyright forms are sent to authors on acceptance of their article for publication.

CrossRefWestburn Publishers Ltd is a member of CrossRef, which  is the citation linking backbone for online publications. Each article published by participating publishers is assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is paired with the URL of the article. This information is deposited in a central DOI directory and this allows links to this content to become live, so, for example, references in an article from a participating publisher will automatically become hyperlinks to the referenced item as it is deposited in the central directory.  The DOI can also be used as a part of a hyperlink to give a constant link to the definitive version of the work as published.

Copyright for all publications is with Westburn Publishers Ltd. No part of the publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including by photocopying, electronically, storing in any medium, transmitting, recording or otherwise, whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use for this publication, without the prior written consent of Westburn Publishers Limited, or under the terms of a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by the Publishers Licensing Society, or in the USA by the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.


Obtaining permission to use Westburn material

Permission is required to republish, copy, distribute, abridge, translate or otherwise reproduce any Westburn content.

If you have a translation or permissions request for a Westburn publication, please contact us at either or, supplying as much information as possible.

Obtaining permissions from other publishers

It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that all necessary permission has been granted to use copyright material, to pay any permission fees and to ensure that the correct credit lines are given.

It is important that you begin clearing permissions as early as possible as it can often be a slow process. You need to make all reasonable efforts to track down the copyright owner and get them to reply. This may be complicated if rights have moved from one publisher to another but keep a record of all correspondence as proof that you have attempted to gain permission to use the material. Permissions should be cleared before the final version of your paper is submitted for publication, in order to avoid delays.

What requires permission?

Figures and tables

You will need permission if you intend to use a direct copy of any photograph, line drawing or table that has been previously published in another source or you intend to adapt a line drawing or a table that has been previously published in another source. You do not need permission if you intend to use raw data to construct a figure illustration or table (although the source of the data must be credited).


Unless otherwise stated, you should apply to the publisher for permission to reproduce a photograph, however, in some instances copyright may reside with the photographer. The source of the photograph should be given in the figure caption and it is to this source that you should apply for permission. You will also need permission before using a photograph from a photo agency. You must be aware of the owner’s moral right of integrity in illustrations. This can be infringed by for example, cropping photographs or changing colours in artwork.

If you have taken a photograph of someone to use in an article, you must clear permission with that person to use their image, with specific reference to the context in which the image would be used.

Online images

Images from the Internet are subject to copyright and permission must be sought from the original copyright holder before using images from a website. Also note that images designed to be viewed online will not be of a sufficient quality to be reproduced in printed form. See our Guidelines on graphics for more details. These are part of the Guidelines for Authors which can be found in the relevant journal webpages.

What can authors use?

Fair dealing

In the UK and European Union, if you are quoting for purposes of 'criticism or review' i.e. your text is clearly the primary text in all instances, or if you are reporting on current events, the 'fair dealing' rule enables you to quote more freely. Note that the 1988 UK Copyright Act does not actually specify how much copyright work can be reproduced without permission. Instead it refers to the concept of a 'substantial' part.  As a guide, you are advised to seek permission to use extracts from copyright material if you wish to reproduce:

- a single extract of more than 400 words
- a series of extracts from one publication totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words

If you are in any doubt as to whether your use of material is covered by ‘Fair dealing’ you should seek permission.

If you have any queries about including an item in your article, please do not hesitate to contact us.

You can also find out more about copyright from the following websites.  (Note that Westburn does not accept any liability in relation to any site or the content of any site to which a link is made from this site).

The Copyright Licensing Agency

UK Intellectual Property Office

Office of Public Sector Information