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References

All referencing in Westburn Publishers Journals should follow APA (American Psychological Association) Style.

The most recent version of this is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition.

Referencing using APA style

We will give a brief summary of the most frequently used citation types here, but you can find full details of many more at the APA style website and blog, including the latest examples of how to cite Social Media Sources. There are also online tutorials in using APA style.  http://www.apastyle.org/

APA style is also available through, or as a plug-in for, many bookmarking and referencing programs, including the proprietary citation system used in MS Office 2010.

Citing References within the text

Single author

References are cited in the text in alphabetical order separated by a semi-colon.

For example: (Baker, 2002; Sargeant, 1999)

If there are two authors with the same surname, use initials in addition to the surnames.

For example: (M.J. Baker, 2002; S. Baker, 1998)

Multiple works by the same author should be ordered in the references by year.

For example: According to Baker (2000, 2002)

Multiple works by the same author in the same year – in the reference list order the works from the same year alphabetically by the title of the work. Then use lower case letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year in the references, and use these lower case letters with the year in the text.

For example: According to Baker (2010a, 2010b)

Multiple authors

2 authors – Use the word ‘and’ between the authors’ names within the text and use ‘&’ within.

For example: The findings of Hilton and Jones (2010) indicated… / (Hilton & Jones, 2010)

More than 2 authors – List all the authors the first time you cite them, then in subsequent citations, only use the first author’s surname followed by et al.

For example: (Walsh, Morschett, & Hass, 2010) then (Walsh et al., 2010)

Specific page references

If you are referring to a specific page, include this in the citation

For example: According to Baker (2010a, p.3)

Reference List

The Reference List should be sorted in alphabetical order.

General rules

Multiple works by the same author should be ordered in the references by year.

For example:

Baker, M.J. (2009). Editorial. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 8, 1-4.
Baker, M.J. (2010). Editorial. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9, 221-227.

Multiple works by the same author in the same year should be ordered alphabetically by the title of the work. Then use lower case letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year in the references, so that in text references to papers from the same year can be distinguished.

For example:

Baker, M.J. (2010a). Commentary. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9, 5-18.
Baker, M.J. (2010b). Editorial. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9, 221-227.

If the same author is the first named author single and multi-authored papers, the single author papers are listed first, then the multi-authored papers are listed alphabetically by co-author.

Journal Articles

Author, A. & Author, B. (Publication year). Article title. Journal title, volume number(issue number), page range. doi: xx.xxxx/xxx…

Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if it is available, for print and electronic sources. For more information on DOIs see www.doi.org

Only include the issue number if each issue of the journal starts at page 1.

If the article is retrieved electronically, and no DOI is available, give the web address of the Journal home page.

You do not need to include a retrieval date unless the source material is likely to change, for example, content sourced from a wiki.

Examples:

Quinn, L. (2010). Reflecting upon the linguistic limitations of marketing managerial practice. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9, 243-252.
Brown, S. (2010). Where the wild brands are: Some thoughts on anthropomorphic marketing. The Marketing Review, 10, 209-224. doi: 10.1362/146934710X523078
Baron, S. (2010). Commentary: Statistics in marketing and consumer research. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 9, 229-242. Retrieved from http://www.journalofcustomerbehaviour.com

Books

Author, A. & Author, B. (Publication year). Book title. Place: Publisher.

For example:

Blythe, J. & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Note, place goes before publisher. For place, use the city, and also include the two-letter state abbreviation for US publishers. There is no need to include the country name.

Contributions in books, proceedings, etc.

Author, A., & Author, B. (Publication year). Chapter title. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Book title (chapter page range). Place: Publisher.

For example:

Baker, M.J. (2010) Marketing: Philosophy or Function? In M.J.Baker & M.Saren (Eds.). Marketing Theory: A Student Text 2nd Ed. (3-25). London: Sage Publications Ltd.

More information

This is just a brief summary of the most frequently used citation types, but you can find full details of many more at the APA style website. http://www.apastyle.org/